In this article, we will list and explain various math terms that start with the letter “B” so you can enhance your mathematical vocabulary.

**Bar chart-**A graph that uses bars to represent data.**Base-**The number that is raised to a power in an expression.**Bimodal-**A distribution with two different modes.**Bivariate-**Involving two variables.**Binomial-**An algebraic expression with two terms.**Bisect-**To divide into two equal parts.**Boundary-**A line or plane indicating the limit or extent of something.**Box plot-**A graphical summary of data showing median, quartiles, and extremes.**Bracket-**Symbols used in pairs to group things together.**Bias-**A systematic error or deviation in results or data.**Base ten-**The decimal numeral system.**Basis-**A set of vectors in linearly independent space.**Bounding box-**The smallest box that can contain a geometric figure.**Back substitution-**A method used to solve a system of linear equations.**Bilateral-**Pertaining to two sides.**Borrowing-**Taking a value from the next higher place value in subtraction.**Benchmark-**A standard or point of reference in measurement.**Break-**even** – The point at which costs and revenues are equal.**Bin-**A range of values in statistics for grouping data.**Boolean-**A type of algebra dealing with true/false values.**Bias-**variance tradeoff** – The tradeoff between error due to bias and variance.**Bayesian-**A statistical method based on Bayes’ theorem.**Ball-**A 3-dimensional space enclosed within a sphere.**Brachistochrone-**The curve of fastest descent between two points.**Biweekly-**Occurring every two weeks.**Butterfly effect-**Small changes in initial conditions leading to vastly different outcomes.**Bose-**Einstein statistics** – Statistics for particles with identical properties.**Bounded-**Confined within limits.**Boolean variable-**A variable that can have true or false values.**Base angle-**The angle formed by the base of a geometric figure.**Bodmas-**An acronym for order of operations: Brackets, Order, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction.**Bracket notation-**A way to denote intervals or matrices.**Bernoulli number-**A sequence of rational numbers important in number theory.**Bollinger bands-**A method for technical analysis in stock trading.**Binary operation-**An operation involving two operands.**Balance point-**Median or middle of a data distribution.**Bond-**A financial instrument representing a loan.**Breakeven analysis-**Determining the point where revenue equals cost.**Bravais lattice-**An infinite array of discrete points in 3-dimensional space.**Bracket polynomial-**A type of polynomial used in knot theory.**Backward induction-**A method used in game theory to solve sequential games.**Beale’s condition-**A situation in linear programming involving degeneracy.**Basis point-**One-hundredth of a percentage point.**Beltrami equation-**An equation in the theory of quasiconformal maps.**Bell curve-**A normal distribution shaped like a bell.**Bubble sort-**A simple sorting algorithm.**Budget-**An estimate of income and expenditure.**Break-**A point where the graph of a function changes smoothly.**Boundary value-**A condition for differential equations specifying values at boundaries.**Bar-**A unit of pressure.**Bhaskara’s formula-**An approximation for finding the square root.**Bisection method-**A numerical method for solving equations.**Bayesian inference-**A method of statistical inference.**Big O notation-**Describes the limiting behavior of a function.**Biased estimator-**An estimator that systematically deviates from the true value.**Box and whisker plot-**A chart in statistics that displays distribution.**Bézier curve-**A parametric curve frequently used in computer graphics.**Brownian motion-**The random movement of particles suspended in a fluid.**Biorthogonal-**Pertaining to a system of vector spaces.**Brocard’s problem-**The problem of finding integers n for which n!-k²=1.**Bine-**Combinations and permutations, often related to binomial theorems.**Ballot theorem-**A combinatorial theorem.**Balanced number-**A number balanced in some mathematical context.**Borwein integral-**A class of integrals studied by Borweins.**Bregman divergence-**A measure of distance between points.**Bernoulli trial-**A random experiment with exactly two possible outcomes.**Bernoulli process-**A sequence of independent and identically distributed Bernoulli trials.**Bressoud’s identity-**A specific identity related to partition functions.**Body-**centered cubic** – A type of crystal lattice.**Boustrophedon-**An arrangement or method that resembles the path of oxen plowing.**Bra-**ket notation** – A notation system for quantum states.**Brick divisor-**A special divisor used in some mathematical contexts.**Branch cut-**A curve in the complex plane where a multi-valued function is discontinuous.**Brillouin zone-**A primitive cell in the reciprocal lattice of a crystal.**Boolean ring-**A ring where each element is idempotent.**Bootstrap method-**A method for estimating the distribution of a statistic.**Bottleneck-**The part of a process that limits overall capacity.**Blocking-**Grouping experimental units that are similar in some way.**Bid process-**Involves tendering and contracts, often in economics.**Baricentric coordinates-**A coordinate system for points within a simplex.**Betweenness-**Relating to points between others in a set.**Bellman equation-**Fundamental in dynamic programming.**Buckingham π theorem-**A key theorem in dimensional analysis.**Bremermann’s limit-**The maximum rate of data processing in a physical system.**Bi-**convex function** – Convex in each variable when others are fixed.**Birkhoff’s theorem-**Related to general relativity.**Balanced matrix-**A concept in optimization and matrix theory.**Boole’s inequality-**A fundamental inequality in probability theory.**Blasius equation-**Found in fluid dynamics.**Baker’s map-**A type of chaotic map.**Boole’s expansion-**Related to Boolean functions.**Birnbaum-**Saunders distribution** – A probability distribution.**Block design-**A set of experimental designs in statistics.**Bulirsch–Stoer algorithm-**An algorithm for numerical integration.**Barnes-**Hut simulation** – An algorithm for performing n-body simulations.**Bronshtein and Semendyayev-**A reference book of mathematical formulas.**Bismarckian economics-**Pertains to some economic policies.**Buffon’s needle-**A probability method using random needle drops.**Binet’s formula-**An explicit formula for Fibonacci numbers.**Bravais lattice-**A geometric arrangement of points in space.

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