In this article, you’ll discover a comprehensive list of math terms that start with the letter “M” to enhance your vocabulary and understanding of mathematical concepts.

**Matrix:**A rectangular array of numbers or expressions arranged in rows and columns.**Modulus:**The absolute value of a number.**Median:**The middle value in a list of numbers.**Mean:**The average of a set of numbers.**Mode:**The number that appears most frequently in a data set.**Multiple:**A number that can be divided by another number without any remainder.**Magnitude:**The size or length of a vector.**Metric:**A standard of measurement.**Multiplier:**A number used to multiply another number.**Monomial:**An algebraic expression consisting of one term.**Midpoint:**The point that divides a segment into two equal parts.**Mapping:**The process of pairing each element of a set with an element of another set.**Minuend:**The number from which another number is subtracted.**Mathematics:**The study of numbers, quantities, shapes, and patterns.**Mantissa:**The decimal part of a logarithm.**Modular:**Relating to or using a modulus.**Metric Space:**A set where a distance between every pair of points is defined.**Multiplicand:**A number that is to be multiplied by another.**Multiplication:**The process of calculating the product of two or more numbers.**Margins:**The difference between costs and revenue.**Mean Deviation:**The average of the absolute deviations from the mean.**Mode (Statistics):**The value that appears most frequently in a data set.**Matrix Multiplication:**Combining two matrices to produce a new matrix.**Modular Arithmetic:**A system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers wrap around after reaching a certain value.**Monte Carlo Method:**A statistical technique involving random sampling to solve problems.**Mediant:**The fraction that is the average of two other fractions.**Metric System:**A decimal system of weights and measures.**Manifold:**A topological space that resembles Euclidean space near each point.**Minimal Surface:**A surface that locally minimizes its area.**Moment:**A measure of the shape of a set of points.**Multiplexer:**A device that combines several input signals into a single output signal.**Mean Squared Error:**The average of the squares of the errors.**Markov Chain:**A stochastic process that undergoes transitions from one state to another.**Mersenne Prime:**A prime number of the form 2^p – 1.**Mobius Strip:**A surface with only one side and one edge.**Minimal Polynomial:**The polynomial of least degree that has a given value as a root.**Mean Value Theorem:**A theorem stating that a continuous function on a closed interval has at least one point where the function’s derivative equals the function’s average rate of change.**Mutual Exclusion:**A property where two events cannot happen at the same time.**Marginal Cost:**The cost of producing one additional unit of a good.**Marginal Revenue:**The revenue gained from selling one more unit of a good.**Mahalanobis Distance:**A measure of distance based on correlations between variables.**Multivariable:**Involving more than one variable.**Matrix Addition:**The process of adding two matrices by adding their corresponding entries.**Missing Data:**Data that is not recorded or is otherwise unavailable.**Markov Process:**A type of stochastic process with the Markov property.**Microeconomics:**The branch of economics that analyzes market behavior of individuals and firms.**Marginal Utility:**The additional satisfaction gained from consuming an additional unit of a good.**Mean Free Path:**The average distance traveled by a particle between collisions.**Magnitude (Complex Numbers):**The distance of the complex number from the origin in the complex plane.**Moving Average:**A statistical technique used to analyze time series data.**Moment Generating Function:**A function that provides an alternative representation of a probability distribution.**Mutual Information:**A measure of the mutual dependence between two variables.**M-**Statistic: A robust statistic that reduces the influence of outliers.**Model:**A mathematical representation of a real-world scenario.**Markov Property:**The property of a stochastic process where future states depend only on the current state.**Meta-**Analysis: A statistical method to combine results from multiple studies.**Modular Form:**A complex function defined on the upper half-plane.**Moore-**Penrose Inverse: A generalization of the inverse matrix.**Maximum:**The largest value in a set of numbers.**Minimum:**The smallest value in a set of numbers.**Marginal Rate of Substitution:**The rate at which one good can be substituted for another while maintaining the same level of utility.**Monte Carlo Simulation:**A method for solving problems using random sampling.**Marginal Product:**The additional output generated by adding one more unit of input.**Mixed Number:**A number made up of a whole number and a fraction.**Modulus of Continuity:**A function that describes the uniform continuity of a function.**Mean Absolute Deviation:**The average of the absolute deviations from the mean.**Mantissa (Logarithms):**The fractional part of a logarithm.**Modern Algebra:**The study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings, and fields.**Matrix Inverse:**A matrix that, when multiplied by its original, yields the identity matrix.**Master Theorem:**A formula for solving recurrence relations.**Maximum Likelihood Estimation:**A method for estimating the parameters of a statistical model.**Mini-**Max Theorem: A theorem in game theory that determines the best strategy in zero-sum games.**Moment of Inertia:**A measure of an object’s resistance to rotational acceleration.**Mean Square Displacement:**The average squared distance traveled by particles.**Mixed Strategy:**A strategy in game theory where a player chooses among possible moves according to a probability distribution.**Monotonic Function:**A function that is either entirely non-increasing or non-decreasing.**Mutually Exclusive Events:**Events that cannot happen simultaneously.**Market Equilibrium:**A situation in economics where supply equals demand.**Mu (Statistics):**The symbol often used to represent the mean of a population.**Mathematical Expectation:**Another term for the expected value of a random variable.**Minimum Spanning Tree:**A subset of edges in a weighted graph that connects all vertices with the minimal total edge weight.**Matrix Determinant:**A scalar value that is a function of a square matrix and encodes certain properties of the matrix.**Moment (Statistics):**A quantitative measure of the shape of a set of points.**Mixed Model:**A statistical model containing both fixed and random effects.**Modular Arithmetic:**A system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers “wrap around” upon reaching a certain value.**Mean Value:**Another term for the average value of a set of numbers.**Median Absolute Deviation:**A measure of statistical dispersion.**Multivariate Analysis:**An analysis technique used to analyze data that originates from more than one variable.**Matrix Factorization:**A process in which a matrix is decomposed into a product of matrices.**Minimum Cut:**A partition of a graph’s vertices that minimizes the sum of weights of edges crossing the partition.**Monte Carlo Integration:**A technique for numerical integration using random sampling.**Mutual Exclusion Principle:**A principle stating that two events cannot both occur at the same time.**Moment (Probability Theory):**A measure of the shape of a probability distribution.**Metropolis Algorithm:**An algorithm for obtaining a sequence of random samples from a probability distribution.**Mallows’ Cp:**A criterion for model selection in regression analysis.**Multimodal Distribution:**A probability distribution with more than one peak.**Monotonic Decreasing:**A function that never increases as its input increases.**Mean Time to Failure:**The expected elapsed time until a system experiences failure.**Markov Blanket:**The set of nodes that renders a node conditionally independent of all other nodes in a Bayesian network.